The Communist Coup in Estonia in 1924 in a Papers of the Polish Military Attache in Rewel. The Case Study of Soviet`s Foreign Politics in the 1920s

Tomasz Gajownik

The unsuccessful communist uprising in Estonia in December 1924 triggered a lively reaction from the Polish military authorities. It was the first, since 1920, attempt to gain power by the supporters of communism in a state that did not pose any threat to the Soviet Union. There were indications that the actions in Estonia could constitute a prelude to the commencement of the Soviet offensive in Eastern Europe.

In connection with the December events, the authorities in Warsaw were interested in obtaining the widest possible picture of the course of events. Therefore, both civil and military diplomats were instructed to provide details of the entire operation. In the latter case, the military attaché, kpt. Wiktor Tomir Drymmer, prepared several reports in which he tried to present not only the course of events, but also their wider background, both political and military. Materials sent to Poland have provided information not only on the nature of the uprising, but also on the inspirational role of the Soviet representation, the reaction of the public and civil and military authorities. The materials provided by the Polish officer were semi-confidential, as some of the messages were obtained by intelligence. This was possible because the Polish attaché at that time was in charge of the work of an intelligence facility codenamed "O.6".

The echoes of the failed uprising, at the turn of 1924 and 1925, led to the conclusion that the Estonian Communist Movement would definitely be broken down. However, this did not happen, and the reports sent by the Polish attaché in 1926 about its further development undoubtedly referred to the undecided attitude of the Estonian authorities after the situation had been mastered. Reports prepared by the attachat are a valuable supplement of knowledge not only regarding the internal situation of Estonia, politics of state and military authorities, but also show the methods of disinformation, inspiration and direct political involvement in the affairs of neighboring countries that have passed to history as a "Caucasian scenario" characteristic of Soviet policy.

Sylwia Szyc